Author Archives: anafebeta

About anafebeta

A woman of means. Meaning a woman of education. A literary bed lozenge who loves reading and discussing literature. Follow me to share your insights.

Lincoln in the Bardo

Screen Shot 2017-12-12 at 5.29.24 PM Lincoln in the Bardo
George Saunders (2017)
Bloomsbury Publishing, 2017

Whatever the former fellow (willie) had, must now be given back (is given back gladly) as it never was mine (never his) and therefore is not being taken away, not at all!
As I (who was of willie but is no longer (merely) of willie) return
To such beauty.
(p.301)

George Saunders is a master of the short story and of philosophical criticism. I will never be able to quite get over the poetry of his evaluation of Chekhov’s “Gooseberries” Read Here. The finesse with which he reads and interprets this classic story speaks of a writer with a nuanced understanding of life and the equivocal pursuit of happiness. These two themes are also common to his first published novel, Lincoln in the Bardo. In this book, Saunders plunges us into a reality of multifarious dimensions. Willie Lincoln, President Lincoln’s son is dead, and yet he is also not dead, nor is he undead. He is trapped in the Bardo.

Just as these multiple states of being appear to be inconsistent with one another, so does the evolution of our understanding of identity and existence which moves through the pages of this strange and evocative book. There is a moment when the residents of the Bardo merge into the essence of President Lincoln. He is at once fundamentally altered, and yet simultaneously comprised of a conglomeration of alternate beings and identities. The ontological consequences of this scene are mind-bending.

There also other moments which elucidate the tenuous nature of our understanding of identity. For example, the need for the characters to append themselves to the thoughts or statements which they decry in order to retain their individuality, is compromised by the fact that each of their statements are moulded strategically by Saunders to add to the plot and progress of the story on a literary level. Thus breaking what appear to be characters into mere pieces of thoughts and memories, devoid of the independent essence of what would have once made them human. In the end, Saunders illustrates that our life is never our own because what we are is not reducible to one life. We all live numerous existences and identities in the space of an instant, and as in the words of Shakespeare;

There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio,
Than are dreamt of in your philosophy.   

It is a rare book which chooses not to capture the impossible complexity contained in an instant, and instead works to convey the weighty significance behind the consequences of such a truth.   

Advertisements

Tar Baby

Screen Shot 2017-12-03 at 8.41.28 PMTar Baby
Toni Morrison (1981)
Picador, Pan Books Ltd (1991)

I would like to write about the role which nature plays in Tar Baby. Initially, the book seems to be focused on the particular inter-relations between individuals, but as the opening suggests, this is a story about the various universes which coexist outside the levels of our perception. Many of which never touch, nor know about one another’s existence. This operates clearly on the human level, Valerian is orbiting in another existence entirely to his wife and that of the historical past of their son. Similarly, Jadine and Son begin and end their shared history on different wavelengths. These separate revolutions eclipse one another for a short moment (not even a year), only to be thrust back into their respective orbits and realities.

More interesting for myself perhaps, is the kingdom positioned at the natural level. From an anthropomorphic perspective, we could suggest that phrases like “water-lady” (p.3) or “teenage avocado” (p.135) suggest an agency to nature which is operating on a human level, almost as an imitation of human forms and definitions. However, as the book progresses, a different image of the natural world emerges, one which is epistemologically incredibly difficult to fathom given the locked-in nature of human perception. Even so, I would like to suggest that Morrison does at times touch at an understanding of one layer of nature which is external to the human experience. One way to access this layer of symbolism is through the image of the house. In the description of Son’s nocturnal wanderings we see the possibility of parallel universes which co-exist, but never meet:

“He spent some part of every night with her and grew to know the house well, for he sneaked out just before dawn when the kitchen came alive. And he had to admit now, standing in the sunlight, that he had liked living in the house that way. It became his, sort of. A nighttime possession complete with a beautiful sleeping woman. (p.138-139)

Interestingly, Son’s adventures are only nocturnal to the protagonists which command the story, individuals like Valerian and even Jade. They are not nocturnal for Son, for his cycle of rest is at direct odds with the other inhabitants of the house. So once we grasp this symbol of the house, we can see that nature also exists within the story on the level of an alternate universe. If we look back to Son’s initial vision of the house, we see him there, one hand on the tree, eyes looking at the “cool and civilised” (p.134) house, and more than ever the world of nature emerges in sharp contrast to the the world of humans and practical industry. I think this is the only moment in the book when the gulf between one very specific layer of nature, the nature experienced through the sensations of a man on the run who exists on the fringes of human worlds, and the layer of civilised existence, merge. Civilised in the colonial sense, where a mother can abuse her own child due to the perversity of the socialised environment to which she has been brought. It is at this instance, before Son begins to float among the fringes of the world of the house, that nature and human species are rejoined.

Importantly, this coming together of worlds is only possible through the perspective of what one would call an ‘uncivilised man’ in the social lexicon of prison based society. From this lense, Son is a man who has lived on the borders of society, an escaped convict, a criminal and a deserter of his way of existence. And it is through his eyes that the house is incredibly ugly, and of course Son knows this too:

“They are drinking clear water in there, he thought, with ice cubes in it. He should have stayed on the boat for the night.” (p.134)

When viewed through this perspective, the ending is simply Son’s return to a state of being,  which is not to be classified as ‘nature’ for how can we understand that which he has become from without? Again, this would be an endeavour in anthropomorphism. Instead all we can do is watch from afar, in the same way as Son initially viewed the house, and only touch at the universe within.

“By and by he walked steadier, now steadier. The mist lifted and the trees stepped back a bit as if to make the way easier for a certain kind of man.” (p.309)

The Book of Laughter and Forgetting

Screen Shot 2017-11-26 at 5.37.36 PM

The Book of Laughter and Forgetting
Milan Kundera
Kniha Smichu a Zapomneni (1978)
Le Livre du Rire at de L’oubli (1979)
Translated from Czech by Michael Henry Heim (1982)
Faber and Faber (1992)

 

So much of Milan Kundera’s writing in “The Book of Laughter and Forgetting” is exceptionally self-aware of his role as a writer. More so than perhaps the content of his book, I was struck with the layers of perception which filter through its structure. Interspersed with the poetic and incredibly fragile vignettes which expound on the themes of memory and laughter, is a consistent stream of conscious elaboration of the nature and form of literature. I can’t say that I know much about re-explaining or reconceptualising something said with undeniable poetry and feeling, but I do know how to see the layers between the phrases and to uncover some of what builds to their meaning. In the case of Kundera, even they layering of his structure is poetic. So if we take what Kundera himself says, that the book is a form of variations all leading to one intangible yet synthetic whole, then each of the characters are but constellations of separate universes. Tamina revolves in and around a certain memory of herself and her home, filtering through shared wavelengths but never touching the worlds of Mirek and Marketa. Often in this book, it appears more like the stories are woven apart rather than together.

Americanah

Screen Shot 2017-11-13 at 9.23.55 PMAmericanah
Chimamanda Ngozi Adiche (2013)
4th Estate, Great Britain (2017)

“She felt his words like a melody and she felt herself breathing unevenly, gulping at the air. She would not cry, it was ridiculous to cry after so long, but her eyes were filling with tears and there was a boulder in her chest and a stinging in her throat. The tears felt itchy. She made no sound. He took her hand in his, both clasped on the table, and between them silence grew, an ancient silence that they both knew. She was inside this silence and she was safe.” (439)

It felt like the whole book was leading to this moment, in Chapter 52, when Obnize and Ifemelu are to be together once again. They have both travelled so far, both in distance and in spirit, only to be reunited for this chapter. In what Adiche dexterously describes in the matter of a few moments, they are able to travel together through all of the layers of one another’s lives which they have missed. Within seconds of their second conversation, held now in Ifemelu’s lounge room, Obnize brings their relationship out of shared or separate memories into the present, into the very nowness of their bond, “I spent the morning reading The Small Redemptions of Lagos. Scouring it, actually,” he said.” (435) Next they tumble through the painful loss of his mother and the disatisfaction of his marriage, all amongst the backdrop of a discussion of architecture, obligations tied to identity, and the courting rituals of the peacocks upon the roof of a neighbouring building. Finally, the painful truth of Ifem’s sexual assault is unwoven and laid bare through the power of speech, only to be taken up gently into a new fold of intimacy on which their bond is founded. Each of the parts of “Americanah” structurally echo the distance between Obnize and Ifemelu, from from the moment they part, till Part 7, in which Chapter 52 is situated, they never figure in the same section. Almost as an alignment of the fabric of their existence, their parts are able to come together once again. Fittingly then, does the chapter commence with an image suitable to this collision of worlds, “There was a moment, a caving of the blue sky”. (427) Although not the technical conclusion to the book, Chapter 52 makes up the end of Ifemelu and Obnize’s long voyage back home.

La peste

Screen Shot 2017-10-15 at 8.20.11 PMLa peste
Albert Camus
Éditions Gallimard, 1947
(Collection Folio)

A sublime reading of La peste. By applying some of the concepts around the experience of the sublime to Albert Camus’ La peste I want to explore the question of engaging with a specific aesthetic concept within a literary work. This has been done innumerable times before, but I want to explore how it is actually possible. Therefore, in the case of La peste, there are two moments within the text which strike me intuitively as being representative of the sublime.

The first would be an example of Kant’s mathematical sublime. This occurs during a description of the escalation in the presence of the rats in the first few pages of the book: 

“Le docteur de souvenait de la peste de Constantinople qui, selon Procope, avait fait dix mille victimes en un jour. Deux mille morts fit cinq fois le public d’un grand cinéma. Voilà ce qu’il faudrait faire. On rassemble les gens à la sortie de cinq cinémas, on les conduit sur une place de la ville et on les fait mourir en tas pour y voir un peu clair. Au moins, on pourrait mettre alors des visages connus sur cet entassement anonyme.”

This psychological need to build an associated image of human bodies as relative to their occupation of space in a cinema is indicative of a possible experience of the sublime. The Doctor cannot synthesise each individual death into a purely numerical and logical representation of the totality of those dead. This experience mirrors our inability to comprehend such a large scale of death, not only in numbers but also in the weight and depth of each individual loss. The Burkean necessity of the feeling of terror is certainly present, for one cannot fathom such morbidity without a sense of one’s own mortality.

The second is tied more to the emotive qualities associated with an experience of the sublime, in particular that of interesting sadness.

“…la peste. Le mot ne contenait pas seulement ce que la science voulait bien y mettre, mais une longue suite d’images extraordinaires qui ne s’accordaient pas avec cette ville jaune et grise, modérément animée à cette heure, bourdonnante plutôt que bruyante, heureuse en somme, s’il est possible qu’on puisse être à la fois heureux et morne.”

When referencing the word plague the Doctor is assaulted by a multitude of conflicting and often paradoxical images. There is a certain disjunction between the way things currently appear and the way by which they are presently imagined. To be at once happy and sad is a feature of one’s experience of the sublime for Kant and this sense of interesting sadness is in fact a prerequisite for any experience of the sublime. This indicates a disparity between one’s experience of the world and the ideas which this experience evokes. Consequently, the sensation of interesting sadness is possibly heterodox to Kant’s pure theory of the sublime whereby impressions are directly linked to the images and ideas which they evoke.  

The Refugees

Screen Shot 2017-08-14 at 7.47.09 PM

The Refugees
Viet Thanh Nguyen
Corsair
209pp
$32.99 AU
Published February 2017
ISBN 9781472152558

Viet Thanh Nguyen’s latest publication, The Refugees published this year by Corsair, is a collection of stories, all of which contain a tale of mistaken identity. This insightful and illuminating work strikes candidly into the heart of life for many refugees and is intrinsically linked to the idea of personhood and self-actualisation. I experienced a number of certain misjudgements or misappropriations during my reading of each story. I made false assumptions as a reader, and each of these errors are representative of wider, more social misapprehensions of the immigrant experience.

Below is a brief summary of a few key moments contained in the stories which frame my reading:

    • Black-Eyed Women: at the opening of the story we mistake the narrator for a man. However in discussing a brother, now dead, we learn that the narrator is in fact a woman. In this way the classical trope of the double, common to many ghost or gothic stories, is subverted. Although the siblings appear as mirror images of one another, the fractured nature of their story is revealed not only through the outcome of their lives, but in the revelation of their gender.
    • The Other Man: I was unsure of not only Liem’s sexual preference, but also of his opinion of the homosexual relationship between the two men he lives with (p. 28-29). False assumptions such as Liem’s and also of our understanding of Liem’s sexuality, are common to the refugee and immigrant experience.
    • The Transplant: this is a story of fraud and opportunism. In many ways the refugee is often stripped of their own identity and free to pursue another. Whilst this can be an opportunity for growth, it can also deeply complicate a person’s relationship to their homeland. I know that as a second generation immigrant I have often been conflicted as to the depth of my feeling or sense of responsibility to the country of my heritage, from which I am absent.
    • I’d Love You to Want Me: this case of mistaken identity is particularly brutal because it not only affects how Mrs. Khanh is seen through the eyes of another, in this case her husband, but also how she looks at her own life and the identity she has built around being The Professor’s wife. In this story we come to understand that the fragility of personhood is universal, to the extent that there is even a moment where we doubt Mrs. Khanh’s grip of reality.
    • Fatherland: the final story in this collection delves deeply into the motif of the double. The relationship between Phuong and Vivien operates as a binary, reflecting the missed opportunities of Phuong’s life to herself. However, it is not Phuong, the one who never left Vietnam, who has missed out. Instead we appreciate, alongside of Phuong, that it is Vivien who has never fully realised her own chances.  

As a reader experiencing these subversions and twists, I can see the difficulty of reading the stories from my own background. Additionally, I find that the confusion felt rather adds to my experience of each story and heightens an awareness of the importance of perspective. Viet Thanh Nguyen has said he writes for a Vietnamese audience, one which necessarily understands his writing on some level; “Therefore, I would not have to translate, and anybody who didn’t know what I was talking about would have to read more carefully and be more attentive”. Therefore, if these mistakes in identity and perspective are common to my reading of his stories, perhaps the key is not to look at them so much as errors, but rather as keys into an understanding of each tale which would be otherwise inaccessible.

Reading in this way, I found it possible to move through my ignorance not only of the historical events but also of the many various layers of life and identity inherent within each individual refugee experience. Like so many of the mirrors in the written worlds of Jorge Luis Borges, the stories of The Refugees open like windows into an array of parallel universes. Where each one exists in connection to another, in urban settings all throughout America and all over the world.  

La Bête humaine

Screen Shot 2017-07-16 at 3.55.31 PM.png

La Bête humaine
Emile Zola (1890)
Folio, 1977

This is an incredibly sensual book, almost to the point of vulgarity. Not in the sense that it is overtly sexual or violent even, just that the atmosphere is palpable in every scene.

All of the characters feel as though they are just centimeters from one another: living, breathing and viscerally gutting themselves all within close proximity. Even when Severine and Jacques take their weekly dalliances to Paris, it feels as though Paris herself has become but another suburb of Rouen.

The image of the ripe neck is persistent and laden with connotations of lust, death and some form of culmination, either murderous or sexually inclined. The image of the body is extended to non-organic objects, such as the train and we see a kind of self-mutilation in the horrific accident which occurs before the book’s denouement.

The motif of modernity feels like a powerful force which keeps pulling these desperate creatures towards some pre-ordained demise, all the while the pace is painfully slow, as though the fact that it is inevitable means that their end is in no way urgent, seeing that it is given.